8.1. Primitive Functions


It is a common exercise in differential calculus to compute the derivative of a differentiable function. In this chapter we will go for the reverse task, i.e. we will try to decide if a given function is the derivative of another one and will look for methods to find one of those.

As a start we introduce the basic notions.

Definition:  Take A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyybIySaeyiyIKRaamyqaiabgkOimlabl2riHcaa@3D5E@ and let f:A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGbbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB8@ be any function. A differentiable function g:A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacQdacaWGbbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB9@ is called a primitive function of f if

g =f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaGaeyypa0JaamOzaaaa@38D5@
[8.1.1]

f is called integrable.

 i

primitive-integrable would be more precise as there are further notions of integrability, e.g. Riemann integrability and Lesbesgue integrability to name but a few. Although these different types of integrability are not equivalent many functions are integrable in several ways and their corresponding integrals (to be introduced in the next chapter) are the same.

(on A) if f has a primitive function. The symbol I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysaiaacIcacaWGbbGaaiykaaaa@38D9@ denotes the set of all integrable functions on A.

Consider:

  • In a known context g is often just called a primitive instead of a primitive function of f. Occasionally g is also called an antiderivative of f.

  • A function f is integrable if and only if it is the derivative of another (differentiable) function. f itself doesn't need to be differentiable.

  • The equation g =f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaGaeyypa0JaamOzaaaa@38D5@ now has two different interpretations:

    1. f is the derivative of g.

    2. g is a primitive of f

  • Deriving g is (mostly) a simple test to decide if g is a primitive of f.

  • If fI(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabgIGiolaadMeacaGGOaGaamyqaiaacMcaaaa@3B48@ the set A is the domain of a differentiable function. Thus each xA MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadgeaaaa@3933@ has to be an accumulation point

     i

    i.e. there is a sequence ( a n ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrVepeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadggadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccaGGPaaaaa@3951@ in A such that x a n x MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrVepeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgcMi5kaadggadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccqGHsgIRcaWG4baaaa@3DA6@ . Primarily this insures the uniqueness of the derivative numbers f (x) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabmOzayaafaGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaaaaa@3939@ . [7.3.1] and [6.8.2] provide the details.

    of A. Hence the set I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysaiaacIcacaWGbbGaaiykaaaa@38D9@ is empty if A contains points other than accumulation ones.


     

Example:  

  • X is a primitive function of 1, as X =1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabmiwayaafaGaeyypa0JaaGymaaaa@3896@ .

  • X 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaaaaa@37B2@ is a primitive function of 2X, as ( X 2 ) =2X MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaGcceGGPaGbauaacqGH9aqpcaaIYaGaamiwaaaa@3BC0@ .

  • −cos is a primitive function of sin MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbaaaa@38C4@ , as (cos ) =sin MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiabgkHiTiGacogacaGGVbGaai4CaiqacMcagaqbaiabg2da9iGacohacaGGPbGaaiOBaaaa@3EEF@ .

  • sin MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbaaaa@38C4@ is a primitive function of cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbaaaa@38BF@ , as sin=cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaai4jaiabg2da9iGacogacaGGVbGaai4Caaaa@3D48@ .

  • sin+2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaey4kaSIaaGOmaaaa@3A62@ is a primitive function of cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbaaaa@38BF@ , as (sin+2 ) =cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiGacohacaGGPbGaaiOBaiabgUcaRiaaikdaceGGPaGbauaacqGH9aqpciGGJbGaai4Baiaacohaaaa@3FA0@ .

This sample list could be extended arbitrarily without any effort as long as we take a function that we know as a derivative from our memory. There are many other functions however, take for instance X┬Ěsin, that may cause severe problems.

The latter two examples prove that a function may well have more than one primitive. The expression "the primitive function of f" is thus incorrect, it has to be "a primitive function of f".

If A is an interval however the different primitive functions are quite well-assorted. Furthermore we will get a certain uniqueness if we prescribe a single value of g.

Proposition:  With an interval I we have for each fI(I) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabgIGiolaadMeacaGGOaGaamysaiaacMcaaaa@3B50@ :

  1. If g 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ and g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37C0@ are two primitives of f there is a c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgIGiolabl2riHcaa@39C8@ such that

g 1 = g 2 +c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabg2da9iaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHRaWkcaWGJbaaaa@3C77@ .
[8.1.2]
  1. If aI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyyaiabgIGiolaadMeaaaa@3924@ there is a unique primitive g of f for each b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOyaiabgIGiolabl2riHcaa@39C7@ such that

g(a)=b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaWGHbGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadkgaaaa@3B04@ .
[8.1.3]

Proof:  

1.   The function g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A8A@ is differentiable on I with ( g 1 g 2 ) = g 1 g 2 =ff=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHsislcaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGabiykayaafaGaeyypa0Jabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaeyOeI0Iabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaamOzaiabgkHiTiaadAgacqGH9aqpcaaIWaaaaa@4748@ . Due to an implication of the mean value theorem [7.9.7] the difference g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A8A@ is thus constant so that there is a c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgIGiolabl2riHcaa@39C8@ such that g 1 g 2 =c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaWGJbaaaa@3C82@ . But that means g 1 = g 2 +c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabg2da9iaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHRaWkcaWGJbaaaa@3C77@ .

2.   As f is integrable there is at least one primitive g of f. But then gg(a)+b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiabgkHiTiaadEgacaGGOaGaamyyaiaacMcacqGHRaWkcaWGIbaaaa@3CB9@ is a primitive as requested.

Now let h be a further primitive of this kind. According to 1. both of them differ only in an additive constant, say g=h+c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiabg2da9iaadIgacqGHRaWkcaWGJbaaaa@3A95@ . Evaluating this equality at a yields

b=g(a)=h(a)+c=b+c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOyaiabg2da9iaadEgacaGGOaGaamyyaiaacMcacqGH9aqpcaWGObGaaiikaiaadggacaGGPaGaey4kaSIaam4yaiabg2da9iaadkgacqGHRaWkcaWGJbaaaa@44B7@

so that c=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@3894@ and thus g=h MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiabg2da9iaadIgaaaa@38CB@ .

This is a quite satisfying answer to the uniqueness problem for primitive functions. The existance problem however, i.e. the question if each function f has primitive, is to deal with yet.

To begin with we show that there are functions with no primitives. So it is not trivial to ask if a function is integrable.

Proposition:  The function f:[0,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaGGBbGaaGimaiaacYcacaaIXaGaaiyxaiabgkziUkabl2riHcaa@3ED7@ given by

f(x){ 1, if  x=0 0, if  x0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9maaceaabaqbaeaabiqaaaqaaiaaigdacaqGSaGaaeiiaiaabAgacaqGHbGaaeiBaiaabYgacaqGZbGaamiEaiabg2da9iaaicdaaeaacaaIWaGaaeilaiaabccacaqGMbGaaeyyaiaabYgacaqGSbGaae4CaiaadIhacqGHGjsUcaaIWaaaaaGaay5Eaaaaaa@4EEF@
[8.1.4]

is not integrable.

Proof:  Suppose the contrary. Then there is a differentiable function g:[0,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacQdacaGGBbGaaGimaiaacYcacaaIXaGaaiyxaiabgkziUkabl2riHcaa@3ED8@ such that

g =f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaGaeyypa0JaamOzaaaa@38D5@ .

In particular g is differentiable on the interval ]0,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiyxaiaaicdacaGGSaGaaGymaiaac2faaaa@39D3@ with g (x)=f(x)=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0JaamOzaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@3F41@ . Thus g is a constant on that interval (see [7.9.7]), i.e. there is a c such that

g(x)=c  for all  x]0,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadogacaqGMbGaaei=aiaabkhacaqGGaGaaeyyaiaabYgacaqGSbGaaeyzaiaadIhacqGHiiIZcaGGDbGaaGimaiaacYcacaaIXaGaaiyxaaaa@492E@ .

As g is differentiable it is continuous as well and the missing value g(0) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaaIWaGaaiykaaaa@38EB@ can be calculated as follows:

g(0)=g(lim 1 n )=limg( 1 n )=c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaaIWaGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadEgacaGGOaGaciiBaiaacMgacaGGTbWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaaaacaGGPaGaeyypa0JaciiBaiaacMgacaGGTbGaam4zaiaacIcadaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaacaWGUbaaaiaacMcacqGH9aqpcaWGJbaaaa@4A8B@ .

Hence g(x)=c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadogaaaa@3B1C@ for all x which provides the contradiction f= g =0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabg2da9iqadEgagaqbaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@3A95@ .

Next we ensure the integrability of continuous functions, at least on intervals. Unfortunately however this is not an equivalent description of integrability as there are examples

 i

as for instance the function g given by

g(x){ x 2 sin 1 x , falls  x0 0, falls  x=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9maaceaabaqbaeaabiqaaaqaaiaadIhadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaGccqGHflY1ciGGZbGaaiyAaiaac6gadaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaacaWG4baaaiaabYcacaqGGaGaaeOzaiaabggacaqGSbGaaeiBaiaabohacaWG4bGaeyiyIKRaaGimaaqaaiaaicdacaqGSaGaaeiiaiaabAgacaqGHbGaaeiBaiaabYgacaqGZbGaamiEaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaaacaGL7baaaaa@570F@

Proof:

of integrable functions that are discontinuous.

Theorem:  If I is an interval every continuous function on I has a primitive function. In other words:

C 0 (I)I(I) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4qamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGimaaaakiaacIcacaWGjbGaaiykaiabgkOimlaadMeacaGGOaGaamysaiaacMcaaaa@3EBD@
[8.1.5]

Proof:

The way primitives were constructed in the proof of [8.1.5] is hardly transferable to actual examples. Thus we may know of many functions that have a primitive but we have no idea to get one. Looking for constructive methods is certainly rewarding! The so called partial fraction decomposition provides such a method for rational functions.

We now need calculation rules for primitive functions. Once these rules are at our hand we will benefit from them in a similar way as we did from the derivation rules for differentiable functions. Firstly we transfer the sum rule, the difference rule and the factor rule.

Proposition:  Let c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgIGiolabl2riHcaa@39C8@ be arbitrary. If g 1 , g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYcacaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaaaa@3A4D@ are primitive functions of f 1 , f 2 I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYcacaWGMbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaeyicI4SaamysaiaacIcacaWGbbGaaiykaaaa@3EC6@ the following holds:

  1. f 1 + f 2 I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHiiIZcaWGjbGaaiikaiaadgeacaGGPaaaaa@3EF8@ and g 1 + g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A7F@ is a primitive function of f 1 + f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A7D@ .

[8.1.6]
  1. f 1 f 2 I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHiiIZcaWGjbGaaiikaiaadgeacaGGPaaaaa@3F03@ and g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A8A@ is a primitive function of f 1 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A88@ .

[8.1.7]
  1. c f 2 I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgwSixlaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHiiIZcaWGjbGaaiikaiaadgeacaGGPaaaaa@3F6C@ and c g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgwSixlaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3AF2@ is a primitive function of c f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiabgwSixlaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3AF1@ .

[8.1.8]

Proof:  

1.  As g 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ and g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37C0@ are differentiable their sum g 1 + g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A7F@ is differentiable as well due to the sum rule ([7.7.4]) with ( g 1 + g 2 ) = g 1 + g 2 = f 1 + f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHRaWkcaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGabiykayaafaGaeyypa0Jabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaey4kaSIabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@4740@ . This proves g 1 + g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A7F@ to be a primitive function of f 1 + f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgUcaRiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3A7D@ .

2. and 3.  are similarly traced back to the appropriate derivation rules.

The new calculation rules will come to life of course only if we have primitives of some of the basic functions. Besides sine and cosine from the first examples we will put the power functions onto that list.

Proposition:  For each n,n1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBaiabgIGiolablssiIkaacYcacaaMc8UaamOBaiabgcMi5kabgkHiTiaaigdaaaa@4078@

1 n+1 X n+1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaiabgUcaRiaaigdaaaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaamOBaiabgUcaRiaaigdaaaaaaa@3CE1@ is a primitive function of X n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaamOBaaaaaaa@37E9@ .
[8.1.9]

Proof:  The function 1 n+1 X n+1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaiabgUcaRiaaigdaaaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaamOBaiabgUcaRiaaigdaaaaaaa@3CE1@ is differentiable with ( 1 n+1 X n+1 ) = n+1 n+1 X n = X n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikamaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaad6gacqGHRaWkcaaIXaaaaiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaad6gacqGHRaWkcaaIXaaaaOGabiykayaafaGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaWGUbGaey4kaSIaaGymaaqaaiaad6gacqGHRaWkcaaIXaaaaiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaad6gaaaGccqGH9aqpcaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaWGUbaaaaaa@4990@ .

Consider:

  • Combined with the calculation rules [8.1.9] guarantees the integrability of polynomials and allows integration to be carried out addendwise: If p= i=0 n a i X i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiCaiabg2da9maaqahabaGaamyyamaaBaaaleaacaWGPbaabeaakiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaadMgaaaaabaGaamyAaiabg2da9iaaicdaaeaacaWGUbaaniabggHiLdaaaa@41C1@ is a polynomial

    i=0 n a i i+1 X i+1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaabCaeaadaWcaaqaaiaadggadaWgaaWcbaGaamyAaaqabaaakeaacaWGPbGaey4kaSIaaGymaaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaWGPbGaey4kaSIaaGymaaaaaeaacaWGPbGaeyypa0JaaGimaaqaaiaad6gaa0GaeyyeIuoaaaa@43FE@
    [8.1.10]

    is a primitive function of p.

  • In particular cX MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4yaiaadIfaaaa@37B1@ is a primitive of c.

  • The reciprocal function X 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaaGymaaaaaaa@389E@ is not in the scope of [8.1.9]!


     

Example:  

  • X 12 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGymaiaaikdaaaaaaa@386D@ has 1 13 X 13 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGymaiaaiodaaaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGymaiaaiodaaaaaaa@3AB1@ as a primitive.

  • X 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaaGinaaaaaaa@38A1@ has 1 3 X 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaG4maaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcaaIZaaaaaaa@3B15@ as a primitive.

  • 3 X 7 +4X1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaG4maiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaiEdaaaGccqGHRaWkcaaI0aGaamiwaiabgkHiTiaaigdaaaa@3CA3@ has 3 8 X 8 +2 X 2 X MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIZaaabaGaaGioaaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaI4aaaaOGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaadIfadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaGccqGHsislcaWGybaaaa@3E89@ as a primitive.

  • 2cos5 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiGacogacaGGVbGaai4CaiabgkHiTiaaiwdaaaa@3B27@ has 2sin5X MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiGacohacaGGPbGaaiOBaiabgkHiTiaaiwdacaWGybaaaa@3C09@ as a primitive.

Transferring further derivation rules is bit more complex. Whereas the product and chain rule will be dealt with separately the following two special cases of the chain and quotient rule are easily transferred. They are quite effective.

Proposition:  For any differentiable f:A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGbbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB8@ we have:

  1. f f I(A) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabgwSixlqadAgagaqbaiabgIGiolaadMeacaGGOaGaamyqaiaacMcaaaa@3E89@ and 1 2 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaa@3947@ is a primitive function of f f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabgwSixlqadAgagaqbaaaa@3A18@ .

[8.1.11]
  1. f f 2 I({xA|f(x)0}) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaaceWGMbGbauaaaeaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaakiabgIGiolaadMeacaGGOaGaai4EaiaadIhacqGHiiIZcaWGbbGaaiiFaiaadAgacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacqGHGjsUcaaIWaGaaiyFaiaacMcaaaa@4885@ and 1 f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOzaaaaaaa@388F@ is a primitive function of f f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaaceWGMbGbauaaaeaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaaaaa@38C7@ .

[8.1.12]

Proof:  

1.   Due to a special case of the chain rule [7.7.12]  1 2 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaa@3947@ is differentiable with

( 1 2 f 2 ) = 2 2 f f =f f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikamaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaaikdaaaGaamOzamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiqacMcagaqbaiabg2da9maalaaabaGaaGOmaaqaaiaaikdaaaGaamOzaiabgwSixlqadAgagaqbaiabg2da9iaadAgacqGHflY1ceWGMbGbauaaaaa@46A2@ .

2.   We employ the reciprocal rule [7.7.11] to see that 1 f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOzaaaaaaa@388F@ differentiable with ( 1 f ) = f f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiabgkHiTmaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaadAgaaaGabiykayaafaGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaaceWGMbGbauaaaeaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaaaaa@3DD5@ .

Using these rules however requires a certain sense of proportion. For the first rule for instance we need to see that a given function is in fact the product of a function with its own derivative.

Example:  

  • sincos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaeyyXICTaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbaaaa@3DE1@ has 1 2 sin 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaaciGGZbGaaiyAaiaac6gadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaaaaa@3B34@ as a primitive as sincos=sinsin MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaeyyXICTaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbGaeyypa0Jaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaeyyXICTaci4CaiaacMgacaGGUbGaai4jaaaa@478C@ .

  • tan cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaaciGG0bGaaiyyaiaac6gaaeaaciGGJbGaai4Baiaacohaaaaaaa@3BA0@ has 1 cos MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbaaaaaa@398A@ as a primitive as tan cos = sin cos 2 = (cos ) (cos) 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaaciGG0bGaaiyyaiaac6gaaeaaciGGJbGaai4BaiaacohaaaGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaaciGGZbGaaiyAaiaac6gaaeaaciGGJbGaai4BaiaacohadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaaaaOGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaGGOaGaeyOeI0Iaci4yaiaac+gacaGGZbGabiykayaafaaabaGaaiikaiabgkHiTiGacogacaGGVbGaai4CaiaacMcadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaaaaaaa@4F91@ .

Exercise:

  • | ? 1 2 exp 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaaciGGLbGaaiiEaiaacchadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaaaaa@3B37@ is a primitive of  exp 2 =expexp=expexp MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaciyzaiaacIhacaGGWbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaeyypa0JaciyzaiaacIhacaGGWbGaeyyXICTaciyzaiaacIhacaGGWbGaeyypa0JaciyzaiaacIhacaGGWbGaeyyXICTaciyzaiaacIhacaGGWbGaai4jaaaa@4C71@ .

  • ? 1 2 1 X 2 +1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaadaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaey4kaSIaaGymaaaaaaa@3C98@ is a primitive of  | X X 4 +2 X 2 +1 =? 1 2 2X ( X 2 +1)2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaWGybaabaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGinaaaakiabgUcaRiaaikdacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaey4kaSIaaGymaaaacqGH9aqpdaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaacaaIYaaaamaalaaabaGaaGOmaiaadIfaaeaacaGGOaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiabgUcaRiaaigdacaGGPaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaaaaa@479B@ .

  • For an arbitrary differentiable function f:A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGbbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB8@   | ? 1 n f n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaaaacaWGMbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaWGUbaaaaaa@39B5@ is a primitive of f n1 f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaCaaaleqabaGaamOBaiabgkHiTiaaigdaaaGccqGHflY1ceWGMbGbauaaaaa@3CEA@ .

Mathematica's Integrator is a very useful online calculator that finds primitives of many common (and not so common) integrable functions with a mouse click! To understand the Integrator's notation however it is essential to have studied the fundamental theorem of calculus [8.2.12] in the next chapter.

Parallel to the concatenation

 i

For f:A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGbbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB8@ and g:B MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacQdacaWGcbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BBA@ with   f(x)=g(x) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadEgacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcaaaa@3D75@ for all xAB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadgeacqGHPiYXcaWGcbaaaa@3B98@ we set

fg(x)={ f(x),  if  xA g(x),  if  xB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiabgQIiilaadEgacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacqGH9aqpdaGabaqaauaabaqaceaaaeaacaWGMbGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaaeOzaiaabggacaqGSbGaaeiBaiaabohacaWG4bGaeyicI4SaamyqaaqaaiaadEgacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacaqGMbGaaeyyaiaabYgacaqGSbGaae4CaiaadIhacqGHiiIZcaWGcbaaaaGaay5Eaaaaaa@5439@
 of continuous and differentiable functions we now study the concatenation of integrable functions. As a preparation to that we check the restriction truth of integration first.

Proposition:  Let A be a set such that AB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyybIySaeyiyIKRaamyqaiabgkOimlaadkeaaaa@3CB5@ and that each xA MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadgeaaaa@3933@ is an accumulation point of A. If f:B MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGcbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BB9@ is integrable on B with g:B MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacQdacaWGcbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BBA@ as a primitive of f then

f|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389D@ is integrable on A
[8.1.13]

and g|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389E@ is a primitive of f|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389D@ . The reverse of [1.8.13] does not hold.

Proof:  As a primitive of f the function g is differentiable with g =f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaGaeyypa0JaamOzaaaa@38D5@ . According to [7.4.1]  g|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389E@ is hence differentiable at every xA MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadgeaaaa@3933@ with

(g|A ) (x)= g (x)=f(x)=f|A(x) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgacaGG8bGaamyqaiqacMcagaqbaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iqadEgagaqbaiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadAgacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacqGH9aqpcaWGMbGaaiiFaiaadgeacaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcaaaa@4B01@ .

But that proves g|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389E@ to be a primitive function of f|A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacYhacaWGbbaaaa@389D@ .

The non-integrable function f from example [8.1.4] has an integrable restriction f|]0,1]=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacYhacaGGDbGaaGimaiaacYcacaaIXaGaaiyxaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@3D7E@ .

On intervals concatenation now turns out to correspond surprisingly straightforward with integrability.

Proposition:  Let I 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37A1@ and I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37A2@ be two intervals with a non-empty intersection, i.e. I 1 I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgMIihlaadMeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHGjsUcqGHfiIXaaa@3E49@ . For any two functions f 1 : I 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacQdacaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3DA2@ and f 2 : I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiaacQdacaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3DA4@ such that f 1 | I 1 I 2 = f 2 | I 1 I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaeyykICSaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiabg2da9iaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccaGG8bGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgMIihlaadMeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@46DB@ we have:

f 1 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3B@ is integrable f 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGzbVlabgsDiBlaaywW7caWGMbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaaaa@3D36@ and f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ are integrable.
[8.1.14]

Proof:

" MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrVepeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=qqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyO0H4naaa@37C6@ ":  If g is a primitive of f 1 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3B@ then g| I i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacYhacaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadMgaaeqaaaaa@39C0@ is a primitive of f i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGPbaabeaaaaa@37F1@ due to [8.1.13].

" MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrVepeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=qqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyi0HWnaaa@37C2@ ":  We first note that there are only two options for the non-empty intersection I I 1 I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysaiabg2da9iaadMeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHPiYXcaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaaaa@3CD3@ :

  1. The intersection is a singleton: I={a} MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysaiabg2da9iaacUhacaWGHbGaaiyFaaaa@3AA6@

  2. The insection is again an interval

Now let g 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ be a primitive of f 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37BE@ . In both cases we will show that there is a primitive g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37C0@ of f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ such that

g 1 |I= g 2 |I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbGaeyypa0Jaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbaaaa@3E49@ .[1]

The first case is easily done as [8.1.3] allows us to find a primitive g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37C0@ of f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ such that g 2 (a)= g 1 (a) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiaacIcacaWGHbGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccaGGOaGaamyyaiaacMcaaaa@3F2B@ .

For the second case we first take an arbitrary primitive g of f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ . According to [8.1.13]  g 1 |I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbaaaa@3997@ and g|I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiaacYhacaWGjbaaaa@38A6@ are two primitives of f 2 |I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbaaaa@3997@ . Due to [8.1.2] we hence find a number c such that

g 1 |I=g|I+c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacYhacaWGjbGaeyypa0Jaam4zaiaacYhacaWGjbGaey4kaSIaam4yaaaa@3F21@ .

g 2 g+c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiabg2da9iaadEgacqGHRaWkcaWGJbaaaa@3B86@ is thus a primitive of f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ satisfying [1].

As g 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaaaaa@37BF@ and g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaaa@37C0@ are continuous the identity [1] is extendable to all accumulation points of I that are members of I 1 I 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadMeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B01@ . We thus may assume that I already contains all accumulation points of this kind.

Now we show that g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3D@ is a primitive function of f 1 f 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3B@ . If xI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadMeaaaa@393B@ the concatenation g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3D@ is differentiable at x according to [7.4.5] with

( g 1 g 2 ) (x)= g 1 (x)= g 2 (x)= f 1 (x)= f 2 (x)= f 1 f 2 (x) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHQicYcaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGabiykayaafaGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0Jabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0Jabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0JaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacqGH9aqpcaWGMbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaeyOkIGSaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaaaa@5CB3@ .

If xI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgMGiplaadMeaaaa@393D@ , say x I 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaadMeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaaaaa@3A22@ , x is no accumulation point of I due to our preliminary note. Hence there is a relative ε-neighbourhood  I 1 x,ε MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaWaaSbaaWqaaiaadIhacaGGSaGaeqyTdugabeaaaSqabaaaaa@3B2D@ such that I 1 x,ε I= MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaWaaSbaaWqaaiaadIhacaGGSaGaeqyTdugabeaaaSqabaGccqGHPiYXcaWGjbGaeyypa0JaeyybIymaaa@4022@ which implies ( g 1 g 2 )| I 1 x,ε = g 1 | I 1 x,ε MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHQicYcaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaaiykaiaacYhacaWGjbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdadaWgaaadbaGaamiEaiaacYcacqaH1oqzaeqaaaWcbeaakiabg2da9iaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccaGG8bGaamysamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaWaaSbaaWqaaiaadIhacaGGSaGaeqyTdugabeaaaSqabaaaaa@4C0F@ . As differentiability is a local property (see [7.4.2]) we thus know: g 1 g 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgQIiilaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaaaaa@3B3D@ is differentiable at x with

( g 1 g 2 ) (x)= g 1 (x)= f 1 (x)= f 1 f 2 (x) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHQicYcaWGNbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGabiykayaafaGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0Jabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaGaeyypa0JaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiaacIcacaWG4bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaaGymaaqabaGccqGHQicYcaWGMbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaadIhacaGGPaaaaa@5234@ .

As an example we consider the absolute value function which is representable as the concatenation of two continuous functions, namely X| 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0IaamiwaiaacYhacqWIDesOdaahaaWcbeqaaiabgsMiJkaaicdaaaaaaa@3CC2@ and X| 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiwaiaacYhacqWIDesOdaahaaWcbeqaaiabgwMiZkaaicdaaaaaaa@3BE6@ . As their primitives 1 2 X 2 | 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaaiiFaiabl2riHoaaCaaaleqabaGaeyizImQaaGimaaaaaaa@3F3C@ and 1 2 X 2 | 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaaiiFaiabl2riHoaaCaaaleqabaGaeyyzImRaaGimaaaaaaa@3E60@ already coincide on the singleton {0}= 0 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaai4EaiaaicdacaGG9bGaeyypa0JaeSyhHe6aaWbaaSqabeaacqGHKjYOcaaIWaaaaOGaeyykICSaeSyhHe6aaWbaaSqabeaacqGHLjYScaaIWaaaaaaa@437D@ we get

1 2 X 2 | 0 1 2 X 2 | 0 = 1 2 X|X| MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaGOmaaaacaWGybWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaaiiFaiabl2riHoaaCaaaleqabaGaeyizImQaaGimaaaakiabgQIiipaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaaikdaaaGaamiwamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaacYhacqWIDesOdaahaaWcbeqaaiabgwMiZkaaicdaaaGccqGH9aqpdaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaacaaIYaaaaiaadIfacqGHflY1caGG8bGaamiwaiaacYhaaaa@51F5@
 

as a primtive function of |X| MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiiFaiaadIfacaGG8baaaa@38C9@ .

In a second example we study for any n >1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBaiabgIGiolablwriLoaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOpa4JaaGymaaaaaaa@3BBF@ the function

f n =(nX+1)|[0, 1 n ]0|[ 1 n ,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakiabg2da9iaacIcacqGHsislcaWGUbGaamiwaiabgUcaRiaaigdacaGGPaGaaiiFaiaacUfacaaIWaGaaiilamaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaad6gaaaGaaiyxaiabgQIiilaaicdacaGG8bGaai4wamaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaad6gaaaGaaiilaiaaigdacaGGDbaaaa@4CE4@ [2]

(nX+1)|[0, 1 n ] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiabgkHiTiaad6gacaWGybGaey4kaSIaaGymaiaacMcacaGG8bGaai4waiaaicdacaGGSaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaaaacaGGDbaaaa@4187@ and 0|[ 1 n ,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGimaiaacYhacaGGBbWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaaaacaGGSaGaaGymaiaac2faaaa@3C8F@ are continuous functions on intervals and are thus integrable. They coincide at their overlap point 1 n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaamOBaaaaaaa@37AA@ , so that each f n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaaaaa@37F6@ has a primitive function.

Interestingly the sequence of functions ( f n ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccaGGPaaaaa@3959@ converges pointwise to the non-integrable function f from [8.1.4], because ( f n (0) ) n>1 = (1) n>1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccaGGOaGaaGimaiaacMcacaGGPaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gacqGH+aGpcaaIXaaabeaakiabg2da9iaacIcacaaIXaGaaiykamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbGaeyOpa4JaaGymaaqabaaaaa@4454@ if x=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@38A9@ , and ( f n (x) ) n 1 x = (0) n 1 x MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccaGGOaGaamiEaiaacMcacaGGPaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gacqGHLjYSdaWcbaadbaGaaGymaaqaaiaadIhaaaaaleqaaOGaeyypa0JaaiikaiaaicdacaGGPaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gacqGHLjYSdaWcbaadbaGaaGymaaqaaiaadIhaaaaaleqaaaaa@485C@ for each x]0,1] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaiabgIGiolaac2facaaIWaGaaiilaiaaigdacaGGDbaaaa@3C54@ . Example [2] thus proves that pointwise convergence and integrability are incompatible. Uniform convergence however behaves better.

Proposition:  Let ( f n ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaadAgadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaGccaGGPaaaaa@3959@ be a sequence of integrable functions on an interval I, i.e. f n I(I) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakiabgIGiolaadMeacaGGOaGaamysaiaacMcaaaa@3C79@ for all n, and f:I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzaiaacQdacaWGjbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3BC0@ an arbitrary function. Then:

f n uf ffI(I) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakmaaxababaGaeyOKH4kaleaacaWGNbGaamyBaaqabaGccaWGMbGaaGzbVlabgkDiElaaywW7caWGMbGaeyicI4SaamysaiaacIcacaWGjbGaaiykaaaa@47D6@
[8.1.15]

Proof:  Due to the premise there is a primitive g n :I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakiaacQdacaWGjbGaeyOKH4QaeSyhHekaaa@3CEA@ of f n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaaaaa@37F6@ for each n. g n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaaaaa@37F7@ is differentiable with g n = f n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gaaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaaaaa@3B1D@ . According to [8.1.3] we may assume that g n (a)=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakiaacIcacaWGHbGaaiykaiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@3C00@ for a fixed aI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyyaiabgIGiolaadMeaaaa@3924@ . The uniform convergence g n = f n uf f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gaaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakmaaxababaGaeyOKH4kaleaacaWGNbGaamyBaaqabaGccaWGMbaaaa@4020@ is obviously passed on to every closed subinterval JI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOsaiabgkOimlaadMeaaaa@3985@ :

g n |J uf f|J MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4zayaafaWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6gaaeqaaOGaaiiFaiaadQeadaWfqaqaaiabgkziUcWcbaGaam4zaiaad2gaaeqaaOGaamOzaiaacYhacaWGkbaaaa@40A4@

Due to [7.12.3] the pointwise limit glim g n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaiabg2da9iGacYgacaGGPbGaaiyBaiaadEgadaWgaaWcbaGaamOBaaqabaaaaa@3CB9@ thus exists and is a primitive of f.

Consider:

  • From the proof of [8.1.15] we see that the condition f n uf f MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakmaaxababaGaeyOKH4kaleaacaWGNbGaamyBaaqabaGccaWGMbaaaa@3CF9@ may be alleviated by

    f n |J uf f|J MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOzamaaBaaaleaacaWGUbaabeaakiaacYhacaWGkbWaaCbeaeaacqGHsgIRaSqaaiaadEgacaWGTbaabeaakiaadAgacaGG8bGaamOsaaaa@4097@   for all closed subintervals JI MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOsaiabgkOimlaadMeaaaa@3985@ .

8.2.